Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF: If you want to understand Tense quickly and easily then you have known about Person, Number and Verb before it. So, first, they were briefly introduced in this article. And at the end of this article, we have given a link to download Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF ebook.
This Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF ebook will help you understand the English grammar in a more easy and efficient way.
Person: By Person I, you, he – means the difference between the person. There are three types of person. For example –
- First Person (I, we)
- Second Person (You)
- Third Person ( He, she, it, they, boy, cow).
In short, I, we are First Person, you is Second Person, and everything else is Third Person. Remember that nouns are all Third Person. I, we, you, he, she, it, they etc. are used as the nominative form subject of different persons.
Me, us, you, him, her, it, them for Person’s objective form, these are used as objects. My, mine, our, ours, your, yours, his, her, its, their, theirs, possessive form, these are used.
Number: Number means the number of something. There are two types of Numbers. For example – Singular Number and Plural Number. If a person, object or animal means only one number, it is a Singular Number. For example I, he, boy, cow etc. If a person, object or animal means more than one in number, it is Plural Number. For example We, they, boys, cows etc.
Verb: The word verb which means to do something, to be, to go, to eat, etc. is called Verb. In a word, Subject is the verb, for example, I eat rice. He reads a book. In both sentences, the word ‘eat’ means the subject eats and the word ‘reads’ means the subject reads. So, they are verbs.
Please note: Each verb has three variants. For example Present, Past and Past Participle. The form of verbs changes. There are no hard and fast rules to change this. Some Past Tense and Past Participle are formed by changing the Vowel in the middle of the Verb and by adding d, ed, t at the end of some Verb. Again, some verbs do not change. (Download Tense chart with rules and examples pdf eBook for detailed guide).
Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF included: 100% Detailed Guide
Tense: Now, it’s time to learn the tense properly. To know read the lines thoroughly below. However, at the end of this article, we have given you the link to download the Tense chart with rules and examples pdf eBook.
- I go to school now.
- I went to school yesterday.
- I shall go to school tomorrow.
The word ‘go’ in the first sentence means the work is done now, the word ‘went’ in the second sentence means the work was done yesterday and in the past, and the third sentence, ‘shall go’ means tomorrow, the future tense.
In the three Sentences, the verb ‘go’ occurs at different times, happened and will happen. The change in the form of the verb to indicate that it is done, happened or will happen is called tense. In a word, the time when the action is completed is called Tense. Tense is the form of a verb to indicate the time of an action. There are mainly three types of tense. For example – Present Tense, Past Tense and Future Tense.
- Present Tense: The present tense of a verb means that any work is done in the present tense.
Example – I go home, He writes a letter.
- Past Tense: The past tense of a verb means any work done in the past.
Example – I went home, He wrote a letter.
- Future Tense: The future tense of a verb means that any work will be completed in the future.
Example – I shall go home, He will write a letter.
Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF
Each tense is further divided into four parts to make it clearer that the work of the verb is done at different times and in different conditions. For example, (1) Indefinite (2) Continuous (3) Perfect (4) Perfect Continuous.
Therefore, Tense’s formation of the verb is twelve.
Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF included below –
- Present Indefinite Tense
- Present Continuous Tense
- Present Perfect Tense
- Present Perfect Continuous Tense
- Past Indefinite Tense
- Past Continuous Tense
- Past Perfect Tense
- Past Perfect Continuous Tense
- Future Indefinite Tense
- Future Continuous Tense
- Future Perfect Tense
- Future Perfect Continuous Tense
Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF
1. Present Indefinite Tense: If a work is done or has been done at an indefinite time, it means habitual work and eternal truth, then it is called Present Indefinite Tense. Example – I eat rice, He walks every morning, The sun rises in the east. Structure – In the present indefinite tense, the present form of the main verb is used after the subject. The form of the original verb does not change. If the subject is the third person and singular number then ‘s’ or ‘es’ is added at the end of the verb.
Please Notice the Exceptions: (1) Many times the English translation of Present Continuous Tense is Present Indefinite Tense. For example, I feel tired. I give you a pen. (2) Present Perfect Tense is often used like Present Indefinite Tense in English translation. This road leads to the school. I feel hungry.
2. Present Continuous Tense: Any work that is going at present time, but is not finished yet, means that the change in the form of the verb is called Present Continuous Tense. Example – I am reading a book, He is eating rice, They are playing in the field, They are fishing in the river. Structure – In this tense, after the subject or subject, according to person and number, a ‘to be’ verb will settle in am, is, are and ing will be added at the end of the main verb.
Please Notice the Exceptions: 1) Present Continuous Tense is often used to mean future. For example, he will come here tomorrow. He is coming here tomorrow. Are you going to Calcutta tomorrow? (2) Many times Present Continuous Tense is used as Present Indefinite Tense. For example, I feel unwell.
3. Present Perfect Tense: Some work has just been completed, but the result is still present, so the change in the form of the verb is called Present Perfect Tense. For example, I have eaten rice, He has gone to school, They have come here, They have come here, The man has passed the M.A. examination this year. Structure – In the present perfect tense, after the subject, ‘has’ or ‘have’ settle according to the person and number and becomes the past participle form of the main verb. Like the participle form of ‘eat’ verb is ‘eaten’.
Please Notice the Exceptions: (1) If the sentence of Present Perfect Tense mentions any day, date and time of the past, then it will be Past Indefinite Tense to translate into English. For example, He went home yesterday, Naren came here on Sunday last. They became Past Indefinite Tense to refer to the past tense words ‘yesterday’ and ‘last Sunday’. But, he has gone home, Naren has come here. There is no past tense word here. This means that the work of the verb has just ended. So they became the Present Perfect Tense.
4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense: Present Perfect Continuous Tense is a change in the form of a verb in the sense that work begins in the past and continues in the present and may continue in the future. Example – He has been reading for two hours, I have been reading in the school for eight years. Structure – Subject is followed by ‘has been’ or ‘have been’ according to person and number and ‘ing’ is added at the end of the main verb.
5. Past Indefinite Tense: Past indefinite tense is the change in the form of a verb in the sense that work has been done in the past or was done and its result is no longer there. Example – I went home. He killed a tiger. Salman walked every evening. Structure – In this tense, the past form of the main verb is used after the subject or subject. For example, the past form of the ‘go’ verb is ‘went’.
Please Notice the Exceptions: ‘used to’ is used before the original verb to denote the habitual action of a past tense by a verb. But ‘would’ is used to mean irregular practice. Example – He used to take tea every morning. He used to read the Geeta every day. I would sometimes walk in the morning. (Irregular practice). Such a sentence can be formed only by the past tense of the verb. Such as – I walked every morning.
6. Past Continuous Tense: Past Continuous Tense is the change in the form of a verb to indicate that something was happening or going on in the past. For example – I was going to school. He was reading a book. He was reading a book. They were playing on the field. Jadu was swimming yesterday. Structure – In this tense, subject or subject is followed by person and number. ‘was’ or ‘were’ is added to the original verb ‘ing’. The use of was and where must be remembered.
7. Past Perfect Tense: The work that has been done before is called Past Perfect Tense. This tense refers to the past tense. The action that was performed later is called Past Indefinite Tense. Examples – The patient had died before the doctor came. He had left the room before I came. The train had started before they reached the station. The play began after we had reached the field. Structure – In this tense, after the subject and before the main verb ‘had’ is used and the main verb becomes past participle.
8. Past Perfect Continuous Tense: Past Perfect Continuous Tense is a change in the form of a verb in the past when one action lasted for some time before another action. This tense refers to the past tense in the sense that another work was going on from the past tense. Example – We had been reading for two hours before the teacher came. Structure – ‘had been’ is placed after the subject and before the main verb and ‘ing’ is added to the main verb.
9. Future Indefinite Tense: Future indefinite tense is the change in the form of a verb which means that a work will be completed in the future tense. For example, I will go home. He will do the work. They will walk by the riverside. We will play on the field. Structure – To form Future Indefinite Tense, after the Subject or the subject and before the main verb, according to Person, ‘shall’ or ‘will’ add to the sentence.
10. Future Continuous Tense: The change in the form of the verb to indicate that work will continue in the future is called Future Continuous Tense. For example, I shall be reading at night. We shall be going to school. Structure – to form this tense, ‘shall be’ or ‘will be’ will sit after the subject or subject and before the main verb and ‘ing’ will be added at the end of the main verb.
11. Future Perfect Tense: Future Perfect Tense is the change in the form of the verb to mean that another work will be done or will be done before one work is done in the future. Future Perfect Tense refers to the previous work of two. The task that will be completed later is the Present Indefinite Tense. For example, I shall have finished the work before you came (or you will come). Jadu will have eaten rice. They will go away when the sun will have risen. Structure – Subject will be followed by ‘shall have’ or ‘will have’ according to Person and will be the Past Participle form of the main verb.
Note: Examples come, comes, strikes: These are Present Indefinite Tense. They can also be used to form sentences using Future Tense i.e. will or shall. Look at the first example, ‘you come’ or ‘you will come ’. It should be kept in mind that only shall or will is used to denote a future work, but a more perfect tense between two works is used as Future Perfect Tense and ‘shall have’ or ‘will have.
12. Future Perfect Continuous Tense: Future Perfect Continuous Tense is a change in the form of a verb, meaning that one action in the future will continue for some time before another action. Example – We shall have been playing before you come. I shall be reading a book for two hours. Structure – Subject is followed by Person according to ‘shall have been’ or ‘will have been’ and ‘ing’ is added to the main verb.
Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF
Twelve Tense were introduced. Now notice the change in the form of ‘do verb’ in different tenses and the difference in their meaning.
The Use of ‘Do’ verb in different Tense
- Present Indefinite: I do it.
- Present Continuous: I am doing it.
- Present Perfect: —I have done it.
- Present Perfect Continuous: I have been doing it for two hours
- Past Indefinite: I did it.
- Past Perfect: I had done it before he came.
- Past Perfect Continuous: I had been doing it before he came.
- Future Continuous: I shall be doing it.
- Future Perfect: I shall have done it before he comes.
- Perfect Continuous: I shall have been doing it before he comes.
The Use of Tense in Different Sentences:
- Affirmative: He goes.
- Negative: He does not go.
- Interrogative: Does he go
- Negative-Interrogative: Does he not go?
Present Indefinite Tense
- He goes to school.
- He does not go to school.
- Does he go to school?
- Does he not go to school?
- They do not play.
- Does Purbasha swim in the river?
- Do they not play with you?
- Does not the boy go to school?
Please note: To make the present indefinite tense negative, ‘do not’ or ‘does not’ place before the verb. To do the interrogative, ‘do’ or ‘does’ before the subject. If the interrogative sentence is negative, it sits after the ‘not’ pronoun, but before the noun (check the last two examples mentioned above).
Present Continuous Tense
- He is writing a letter.
- He is not writing a letter.
- Is he writing a letter?
- Is he not writing a letter?
- Are they swimming in the river?
- Are they swimming in the river?
- Is he not singing?
Please note: To make the present continuous tense negative, sit after the ‘not’ auxiliary verb (am, is, are). In the Interrogative, am, is, are at the beginning of the sentence and if the interrogative sentence is negative, it is preceded by ‘not’ noun but after the pronoun. (Download Tense chart with rules and examples pdf eBook for detailed guide).
Present Perfect Tense
- I have eaten rice.
- I have not eaten rice.
- Have I eaten rice?
- Have I not eaten rice?
- They have not played football.
- Has he not written a letter?
- Have not the boys done the sums?
Please note: Negative Sentence is followed by ‘not’, ‘have’ or ‘has’ To interrogate, sit at the beginning of ‘have’ or ‘has’ sentence. If the interrogative sentence is negative, it precedes a ‘not’ noun. But sits after the pronoun.
Past Indefinite Tense
- Rehan went to Kolkata.
- Rehan did not go to Kolkata.
- Did Rehan go to Kolkata?
- Did not Madhu go to Kolkata?
Please note: ‘did not’ precedes the verb in the negative and sits first in the ‘Did’ Sentence in the interrogative and does not change the original verb. Interrogative Sentence, if negative, precedes ‘not’ noun and after pronoun. (Download Tense chart with rules and examples pdf eBook for more detailed guide).
Past Continuous Tense
- He was reading a book.
- He was not reading a book.
- Was he reading a book?
- Was he not reading a book?
- Were they not going to school?
- Were not the cows grazing?
- Was he reading the book?
Please note: Negative is followed by was or were followed by ‘not’ and interrogative is preceded by was or were. Negative interrogative sentences are preceded by the noun ‘not’. Before an unspecified singular noun ‘a’ sits and before specified singular and plural noun, ‘the’ will be appropriate such as the book, the cows etc.
Past Perfect Tense
- The patient had died before the doctor came.
- The patient had not died before the doctor came.
- Had the train started before you reached the station?
Please note: Negative is followed by ‘had’ followed by ‘not’ and Interrogative is preceded by ‘had’ sentence and preceded by ‘not’ noun.
Future Indefinite Tense
- I shall go home tomorrow.
- I shall not go home tomorrow.
- Shall I go home?
- Shall we play tomorrow?
- Will you go to school today?
- Shall you go to school today?
- Will they come here?
- Will not Rishita come here tomorrow?
Please note: In the general future, in Interrogative Sentence, ‘Shall’ is used in the First and Second person and ‘will’ is used in the Third person.
- Shall I go to Calcutta with you? (What is the wish of the person asked?)
- Will you buy this pen? (What is the will of the person asked?)
- Shall he call in a doctor for you? (What is the will of the person asked?)
Note: ‘Shall’ is used in the first and third person of the interrogative sentence if you want to know the will of the person being asked and ‘will’ is used in the second person. (Notice the rules mentioned below. Also, do not forget to check the Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF link.)
Rules for the use of Shall and Will in Interrogative Sentence – (1) In the interrogative sentence ‘Shall’ in the First-person, the general future speaker expresses the command desire of the person with whom he speaks or asks questions. (2) ‘shall’ in the second person indicates the common future tense. (3) In the third person ‘shall’ express the search for the order or will of the person being questioned. E.g. Shall I go? (General Future and Desire Search) Shall you go? (General future) Shall he go? (Will search) ‘will’ is not used in the First person in the Interrogative Sentence.
But “will’ in the second person, the speaker searches for the wish or intention of the person he is talking to and general future tense in the third person, such as Will you go? (searching will) Will he go? (general future). (Download Tense chart with rules and examples pdf eBook for detailed guide).
Future Continuous Tense
- Anjali will be sleeping then.
- I shall not be reading at night.
- Will he be doing sums till 4 p.m.?.(p.m. Post meridiem: after midday.)
- Will they not be reading at night?
Future Perfect Tense
- We shall have reached home before the sun sets (or will set).
- The rain will not have started before we reach there.
- Shall we have reached Naihati by that time?
- Will he not have come here before the clock strikes five?
The use of ‘Be Verb’ in the present tense
In this tense, the forms of the verb ‘Be’ are used in the sense of am, is, are. (More detailed guide is available in Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF). For example –
|I am||We are|
|You are||You are|
|He is||They are|
|Ram is||Boys are|
- I am a student.
- You are kind.
- He is strong.
- You are rich.
- I am not a student.
- You are not kind.
- He is not strong.
- You are not rich.
- Am I a student?
- Are you kind?
- Is he strong?
- Are you rich?
- Are they honest?
Negative – Interrogative
- Am I not a student?
- Are you not kind?
- Is he not strong?
- Are you not rich?
- Are they not honest?
The use of the ‘Be’ Verb in the past tense
(was, were) is used in this tense to mean was and were, they were, were, were, etc.
|I was||We were|
|You were||You were|
|He was||They were|
|He was||You were|
- I was happy.
- He was lazy.
- We were sad.
- They were absent.
- I was not happy.
- You were not well.
- He was not lazy.
- We were not sad.
- They were not absent
- Was I happy?
- Were you healthy?
- Were you well?
- Was he lazy?
- Were we sad?
- Were they absent?
- Am I not happy?
- Was I not happy?
- Were you not well?
- Was he not lazy?
- Were we not sad?
- Were they not absent?
See again –
- The pen was good.
- He was not active.
- Was the girl beautiful?
- He was in this room.
- Was Jadu there?
- Was he not pious?
Note: Negative sentence is followed by was or were. In the interrogative sentence, ‘was’ or ‘were’ precedes the sentence. In Negative – Interrogative Sentence ‘not’ place before the Noun, but in case of the Pronoun (I, we, you, he, they etc.), ‘not’ place after it. (Download Tense chart with rules and examples pdf eBook for detailed guide).
The use of the ‘Be’ Verb in the future tense
|I shall be||We shall be|
|You will be||You will be|
|He will be||They will be|
|Ram will be||Boys will be|
- I shall be happy.
- You will be rich.
- He will be glad.
- They will be sad.
- I shall not be happy.
- You will not be rich.
- He will not be glad.
- They will not be sad.
- Shall I be happy?
- Will you be rich?
- Will he be glad?
- Will they be sad?
- Shall I not be happy?
- Will you not be rich?
- Will he not be glad?
- Will they not be sad?
- I shall be a poet.
- He will be a good guitarist in future.
- Ramesh will not be sad about this.
- The letter will be written at night.
- Shall we not be tired?
- Will he not be glad to see it?
- Will not the book be published this year?
Note: In Negative Sentence, ‘not’ places after ‘Shall’ and ‘Will’. In Interrogative Sentence ‘shall’ and ‘will’ places first in a sentence. In Negative-Interrogative Sentence ‘not’ is used after the pronoun and before the noun. (Download Tense chart with rules and examples pdf eBook for detailed guide).
The use of the ‘Have’ verb in the present tense
|I have||We have|
|You have||You have|
|He has||They have|
|It has||They have|
- I have a pen.
- We have a house.
- He has a ring.
- Madhu has a cap.
- I have no pen.
- We have no house.
- He has no ring.
- Madhu has no cap.
- Have I a pen?
- Have we a house?
- Has he a ring?
- Has Madhu a cap?
- Have I no pen?
- Have we no house?
- Has he no ring?
- Has not Madhu a cap?
Note: In Negative Sentence ‘no’ is usually placed after have or has. ‘not’ is followed by ‘a’ or ‘an. But not in the case of ‘no’. In Interrogative Sentence ‘have’ or ‘has’ is used at the beginning. In Interrogative Sentence ‘no’ and ‘not’ is placed after the pronoun but ‘not’ is placed before the noun. Like – Has he no (or not a) ring? Has not Madhu a cap? [More detailed guide is available in Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF]
Again see –
- They have a garden.
- The dog has four legs.
- He has no enemy.
- Has Ram two pens?
- He has no book. Or, He has not a book.
- Have they a horse?
- Has he no box? Or, Has he not a box?
- Have they not an umbrella?
The use of the ‘Have’ verb in the past tense
In past tense, the form of the ‘Have’ verb was ‘Had’.
|I had||We had|
|You had||You had|
|He had||They had|
|It had||Madhu had|
- I had a pen
- You had a book.
- He had a cat.
- They had a horse.
- They had a horse.
- We had an umbrella.
- I had no pen.
- You had no book.
- He had no cat.
- They had no horse.
- They had no horse. –
- Had I a pen?
- Had you a book?
- Had he a cat?
- Had they a horse?
- Had we an umbrella?
Negative – Interrogative
- Had I no pen?
- Had you no book?
- Had he no cat?
- Had he no horse?
- Had we no umbrella? Or, Had we, not an umbrella?
Note: In the past tense of the ‘have’ verb, ‘had’ is used in all person and numbers. In Negative Sentence, ‘had’ is used after ‘no’. ‘a’ or ‘an’ can not be used after ‘no’. In Interrogative sentences, ‘had’ is used before the sentence.
- We had a beautiful garden.
- He had no good pen.
- Had she a diamond ring?
- Had you no storybook Or, Had you not a storybook?
Please note again: In Negative – Interrogative sentence, if the subject is a noun, ‘not’ sits before it and if pronoun ‘no’ or ‘not’ is placed after it.
For example –
- Had he not a pen?
- Had not Jadu a pen?
If you see the uses of the ‘be’ verb and ‘have’ verb, you can notice that ‘is’ and ‘has’ both means ‘there is’. And ‘was’ and ‘had’ both means ‘there was’. But, they have a huge difference between them. Notice below with full concentration –
- He is in the room.
- He has a ring.
Here ‘is’ means the lord himself is in the house and ‘has’ refers to the lord has anything, such as a ring, but does not mean the lord himself.
- He was lazy.
- He had a pen.
Here ‘was’ is used in the sense that the master was himself as if he were lazy. But ‘had’ does not mean the master was himself, the master had a pen. Briefly remember that the form of the verb ‘be’: is, am, are, was, were meant by the lord himself, or was and the form of the verb ‘have’: is have, has, had meant that the lord has something or was, the lord himself doesn’t mean there is or was.
The use of the ‘Have’ verb in future tense (‘shall have’ & ‘will have’)
- I shall have a prize.
- You will have a pen.
- They will have a holiday tomorrow.
- Will you have a holiday?
- We shall have no holiday.
- I shall have a cup of tea.
- Then I shall have many friends.
Sequence of Tense
The sequence of Tense is the principle according to which the tense of the verb in a subordinate clause follows the tense of the verb in the principle clause. (Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF eBook link mentioned below. Do check it for a detailed guide).
Conjugation of Verbs Chart
(Strong and weak verbs)
Complete tense chart is available on Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF eBook.
|Present Tense||Past Tense||Past Participle|
|Awake (to wake up)||awaked||awaked|
|Bid||bade, bid||bidden, bid|
|Beget||begot, begat||begotten, begot|
|Clothe||clothed, clad||clothed, clad|
|Dream||dreamt, dreamed||dreamt, dreamed|
|Learn||learnt, learned||learnt, learned|
|Wake||woke, waked||waked, woken|
Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF
I have discussed an in-depth overview of tenses and I hope it will be beneficial for you. If this article was really helpful for you then do not forget to share it with family, friends or any student who may need it to understand the importance of tense in English grammar. Below, I’m also giving you the Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF – with a more detailed guide.
Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF File
Below is the link to download the tense chart with rules and examples pdf format eBook.
- Download Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF: Visit this page to download tense chart with rules and examples pdf file. This Tense Chart with Rules and Examples PDF eBook will help you understand tense in a more easier way.
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